• What Is Language? What Is Speech?

    Kelly's 4-year-old son, Tommy, has speech and language problems. Friends and family have a hard time understanding what he is saying. He speaks softly, and his sounds are not clear.

    Jane had a stroke. She can only speak in one- to two-word sentences and cannot explain what she needs and wants. She also has trouble following simple directions.

    Language is different from speech.

    Language is made up of socially shared rules that include the following:

    • What words mean (e.g., "star" can refer to a bright object in the night sky or a celebrity)
    • How to make new words (e.g., friend, friendly, unfriendly)
    • How to put words together (e.g., "Peg walked to the new store" rather than "Peg walk store new")
    • What word combinations are best in what situations ("Would you mind moving your foot?" could quickly change to "Get off my foot, please!" if the first request did not produce results)

    Speech is the verbal means of communicating. Speech consists of the following:

    How speech sounds are made (e.g., children must learn how to produce the "r" sound in order to say "rabbit" instead of "wabbit").
    Use of the vocal folds and breathing to produce sound (e.g., the voice can be abused from overuse or misuse and can lead to hoarseness or loss of voice).
    The rhythm of speech (e.g., hesitations or stuttering can affect fluency).

    When a person has trouble understanding others (receptive language), or sharing thoughts, ideas, and feelings completely (expressive language), then he or she has a language disorder.

    When a person is unable to produce speech sounds correctly or fluently, or has problems with his or her voice, then he or she has a speech disorder.

    In our example, Tommy has a speech disorder that makes him hard to understand. If his lips, tongue, and mouth are not moved at the right time, then what he says will not sound right. Children who stutter, and people whose voices sound hoarse or nasal have speech problems as well.

    Jane has a receptive and expressive language disorder . She does not have a good understanding of the meaning of words and how and when to use them. Because of this, she has trouble following directions and speaking in long sentences.
    Language and speech disorders can exist together or by themselves. The problem can be mild or severe. In any case, a comprehensive evaluation by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) certified by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) is the first step to improving language and speech problems.

    It is important for you to try to assess whether or not your child has understood what was just said. This can be a subjective judgment call at times. You might be able to tell by the look upon his face, by his physical reaction, or by his verbal response. It is often difficult to know for sure if your child has misunderstood or if he is purposefully not listening. When in doubt, assume that your child did not understand and try the suggestions below to help him understand.

    • Repeat what you said a little bit more slowly.
    • Rephrase what you said in simpler language.
    • Orient or remind your child to the topic of conversation and then re-ask your question and prompt for back and forth exchange. For example you might say, “Remember when we went to Grandma’s house yesterday and we saw the bird nest? We saw the nest hidden in the pine tree. There were three little eggs inside. They were blue.”
    • Walk him through it. Show your child exactly what you want him to do while talking through the steps and encouraging your child to repeat it after you. For example say, “First we are going to put the flour in and then mix it with the egg. What are we going to do?”