• Reading is the key to learning and an important factor in a child’s overall success in life.

     Most Second Graders are progressing beyond the Early Reader Stage by the time they enter second grade.  They are improving on their word attack skills and working on using their “reading strategies” to maintain meaning as they read.  They are working on becoming “fluent” readers. 

    Students need to work at home as well as school on improving their reading fluency skills. KEEP in MIND that K-2nd grade is learning to read and 3rd-5th grade is reading to learn!


    Early  Readers are just beginning to grasp the basic concepts of book and print. They are acquiring a command of the alphabet with the ability to recognize and name uppercase and lowercase letters. They are also developing many phonological awareness skills, such as recognizing phonemes, syllables, and rhyme.

    Early Readers are beginning to learn sound/symbol relationships--starting with consonants and short vowels--and are able to read CVC (consonant-vowel-consonant) words, as well as a number of high-frequency words. Typically at this stage children can:

    • use pictures for clues
    • retell a simple story which is read to them
    • recall some details
    • know names of letters
    • identify consonant sounds at beginning and end of words
    • use configuration as clue to identify words
    • read by rote memorization
    • read one word at a time-choppy
    • select simple repetitious books
    • read favorite books over and over
    • silent sustained reading 5-10 minutes
    • has the desire to be a fluent reader
    • enjoys retelling stories


    At this stage, reading is more automatic, and more energy is devoted to comprehension than word attack. Readers are approaching independence in comprehending text. These readers are experiencing a greater variety of text and can recognize different styles and genres. Independence often varies with the type of text being read. Typically at this stage children can:

    • sequence events in story
    • tell main idea
    • make predictions
    • identify main characters
    • identify setting
    • differentiate between fact and fiction
    • identify high frequency words
    • have some awareness of medial vowel sounds
    • use context clues
    • begin to self correct
    • understand the meaning of . ? !
    • pause and use appropriate inflection for punctuation
    • read phrases
    • select a variety of books
    • silent sustained reading 10-15 minutes
    • begin to feel confident when reading silently or orally


    Fluent Readers have successfully moved from "learning to read" to using "reading to learn." Their reading is automatic / fluent and includes appropriate expression and pauses. Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. "Fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding the words, they can focus their attention on what the text means. They can make connections among the ideas in the text and between the text and their background knowledge." (National Institute For Literacy) In other words, fluent readers recognize words and comprehend at the same time. 

    Their energy is devoted to understanding, and they have good command and use of the various comprehension strategies.

    These readers read a wide range of text types and do so independently. They will continue to refine and develop their reading skills as they encounter more difficult reading materials. But, for the most part, they are capable of improving their reading skills and selection of materials independently through increased practice. Typically at this stage children can:

    • recognize the plot of a story
    • recognize the  problem and solution in a story
    • evaluate character's actions or behaviors
    • use a variety of clues to decode unfamiliar words
    • identify blends, digraphs, dipthongs
    • apply vowel rules to sound out words
    • understand affixes
    • use punctuation correctly
    • read with expression
    • read smoothly
    • select a wide variety of books
    • many select chapter books
    • silent sustained reading at least 20 minutes
    • confident
    • enjoy sharing favorite books
    • enjoy challenges 
    • select reading during free time
Last Modified on July 14, 2015