•  So…what is reading?

    Reading is the motivated and fluent coordination of word recognition and comprehension.

    Reading is a multifaceted process involving word recognition, comprehension, fluency, and motivation. Learn how readers integrate these facets to make meaning from print.

    Reading in its fullest sense involves weaving together word recognition and comprehension in a fluent manner. These three processes are complex, and each is important. How complex? Here goes?

    To develop word recognition, children need to learn:

    • How to break apart and manipulate the sounds in words – this is phonemic awareness
      example: feet has three sounds: /f/, /e/, and /t/
    • Certain letters are used to represent certain sounds – this is the alphabetic principle
      example: s and h make the /sh/ sound
    • How to apply their knowledge of letter-sound relationships to sound out words that are new to them – this is decoding
      example: ssssspppoooon – spoon!
    • How to analyze words and spelling patterns in order to become more efficient at reading words – this is word study
      example: Bookworm has two words I know: book and worm.
    • To expand the number of words they can identify automatically is called their sight vocabulary
      example: Oh, I know that word – the!

    To develop comprehension, children need to develop:

    • Background knowledgeabout many topics
      example: This book is about zoos – that's where lots of animals live.
    • Extensive oral and print vocabularies
      example: Look at my trucks – I have a tractor, and a fire engine, and a bulldozer.
    • Understandings about how the English language works
      example: We say she went home, not she goed home.
    • Understandings about how print works
      example: reading goes from left to right
    • Knowledge of various kinds of texts
      example: I bet they live happily ever after.
    • Various purposes for reading
      example: I want to know what ladybugs eat.
    • Strategies for constructing meaningfrom text, and for problem solving when meaning breaks down
      example: This isn't making sense. Let me go back and reread it.

    To develop fluency, children need to:

    • Develop a high level of accuracy in word recognition
    • Maintain a rate of reading brisk enough to facilitate comprehension
    • Use phrasing and expression so that oral reading sounds like speech
    • Transform deliberate strategies for word recognition and comprehension into automatic skills

    But if reading isn't pleasurable or fulfilling, children won't choose to read, and they won't get the practice they need to become fluent readers.

    Therefore, reading also means developing and maintaining the motivation to read. Reading is an active process of constructing meaning? The key word here is active.

    To develop and maintain the motivation to read, children need to:

    • Appreciate the pleasures of reading
    • View reading as a social act, to be shared with others
    • See reading as an opportunity to explore their interests
    • Read widely for a variety of purposes, from enjoyment to gathering information
    • Become comfortable with a variety of different written forms and genres
Last Modified on July 14, 2015