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Chapter 22 Take Home Test - AP Biology - Allen

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

On which of the following did Linnaeus base his classification system?
A)
morphology and anatomy
B)
evolutionary history
C)
the fossil record
D)
A and B only
E)
A, B, and C
 

 2. 

Which of the following events, as described here, is most in agreement with the idea of catastrophism?
A)
the gradual uplift of the Himalayas by the collision of the Australian crustal plate with the Eurasian crustal plate
B)
the formation of the Grand Canyon by the Colorado River over millions of years
C)
the deposition of sediments many kilometers thick on the floors of seas and oceans
D)
the demise of the dinosaurs, and various other groups, by the impact of a large extraterrestrial body with Earth
E)
the development of the Galapagos Islands from underwater seamounts over millions of years
 

 3. 

What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
A)
Earth is 6,000 years old, and populations are unchanging.
B)
Earth is 6,000 years old, and populations gradually change.
C)
Earth is millions of years old, and populations rapidly change.
D)
Earth is millions of years old, and populations are unchanging.
E)
Earth is millions of years old, and populations gradually change.
 

 4. 

During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement would you use to correct this student's misconception?
A)
Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes.
B)
Spontaneous mutations can result in the appearance of new traits.
C)
Only favorable adaptations have survival value.
D)
Disuse of an organ may lead to its eventual disappearance.
E)
Overproduction of offspring leads to a struggle for survival.
 

 5. 

"Improving the intelligence of an adult through education will result in that adult's descendants being born with a greater native intelligence." This statement is an example of
A)
Darwinism.
B)
Lamarckism.
C)
uniformitarianism.
D)
scala naturae.
E)
Malthusianism.
 

 6. 

Darwin's mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of Earth's ancient age?
A)
Georges Cuvier
B)
Charles Lyell
C)
Alfred Wallace
D)
Thomas Malthus
E)
John Henslow
 

 7. 

Darwin had initially expected the living plants of temperate South America to resemble those of temperate Europe, but he was surprised to find that they more closely resembled the plants of tropical South America. The biological explanation for this observation is most properly associated with the field of
A)
meteorology.
B)
embryology.
C)
vertebrate anatomy.
D)
bioengineering.
E)
biogeography.
 

 8. 

Who was the naturalist who synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin?
A)
Charles Lyell
B)
Gregor Mendel
C)
Alfred Wallace
D)
John Henslow
E)
Thomas Malthus
 

 9. 

Charles Darwin was the first to propose
A)
that evolution occurs.
B)
a mechanism for how evolution occurs.
C)
that the Earth is older than 6,000 years.
D)
a mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence.
E)
a way to use artificial selection as a means of domesticating plants and animals.
 

 10. 

In evolutionary terms, the more closely related two different organisms are, the
A)
more similar their habitats are.
B)
less similar their DNA sequences are.
C)
more recently they shared a common ancestor.
D)
less likely they are to be related to fossil forms.
E)
more similar they are in size.
 

 11. 

Both Darwin's and Lamarck's ideas regarding evolution suggest which of the following?
A)
All species were fixed at the time of creation.
B)
Acquired physical characteristics can be inherited.
C)
The giraffe's long neck is the result of artificial selection.
D)
The main mechanism of evolution is natural selection.
E)
The interaction of organisms with their environment is important in the evolutionary process.
 

 12. 

Natural selection is based on all of the following except
A)
variation exists within populations.
B)
the fittest individuals tend to leave the most offspring.
C)
there is differential reproductive success within populations.
D)
populations tend to produce more individuals than the environment can support.
E)
individuals must adapt to their environment.
 

 13. 

Which of the following represents an idea Darwin took from the writings of Thomas Malthus?
A)
All species are fixed in the form in which they are created.
B)
Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply.
C)
Earth changed over the years through a series of catastrophic upheavals.
D)
The environment is responsible for natural selection.
E)
Earth is more than 10,000 years old.
 

 14. 

To observe natural selection's effects on a population, what must be true?
A)
One must observe more than one generation of the population.
B)
The population must contain genetic variation.
C)
Members of the population must increase or decrease the use of some portion of their anatomy.
D)
A and C only
E)
A and B only
 

 15. 

During drought years on the Galapagos, small, easily eaten seeds become rare leaving only large, hard-cased seeds that only birds with large beaks can eat. If a drought persists for several years, then what should one expect to result from natural selection?
A)
Small birds gaining larger beaks by exercising their mouth parts.
B)
Small birds mutating their beak genes with the result that later-generation offspring have larger beaks.
C)
Small birds anticipating the long drought and eating more to gain weight and, consequently, growing larger beaks.
D)
More small-beaked birds dying than the larger-beaked birds. The offspring produced in subsequent generations have a higher percentage of birds with large beaks.
E)
Larger birds eating less so smaller birds can survive.
 

 16. 

Which of the following statements is not an inference of natural selection?
A)
Subsequent generations of a population should have greater proportions of individuals that possess favorable traits.
B)
An individual organism undergoes evolution over the course of its lifetime.
C)
Often only a fraction of offspring survive, because there is a struggle for limited resources.
D)
Individuals whose inherited characteristics best fit them to the environment should leave more offspring.
E)
Unequal reproductive success among its members leads a population to adapt over time.
 

 17. 

In a hypothetical environment, fishes called pike-cichlids are visual predators of algae-eating fish, i.e., they locate their prey by sight. If a population of algae eaters experiences predation pressure from pike-cichlids, which of the following would least likely be observed in the algae-eater population over the course of many generations?
A)
Coloration of the algae eaters may become drab.
B)
The algae eaters may become nocturnal (active only at night).
C)
Female algae eaters may become larger, bearing broods composed of more, and larger, young.
D)
The algae eaters may become sexually mature at smaller overall body sizes.
E)
The algae eaters may become faster swimmers.
 

 18. 

Which statement best describes how the evolution of pesticide resistance occurs in a population of insects?
A)
Individual members of the population slowly adapt to the presence of the chemical by striving to meet the new challenge.
B)
All insects exposed to the insecticide begin to use a formerly silent gene to make a new enzyme that breaks down the insecticide molecules.
C)
Insects observe the behavior of other insects that survive pesticide application, and adjust their own behaviors to copy those of the survivors.
D)
A number of genetically resistant pesticide survivors reproduce. The next generation of insects contains more genes from the survivors than it does from susceptible individuals.
E)
B and D only
 

 19. 

Of the following anatomical structures, which is homologous to the wing of a bat?
A)
dorsal fin of a shark
B)
tail of a kangaroo
C)
wing of a butterfly
D)
tail fin of a fish
E)
arm of a human
 

 20. 

If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that
A)
they live in very different habitats.
B)
they should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms.
C)
their chromosomes should be very similar.
D)
they shared a common ancestor relatively recently.
E)
they should be members of the same genus.
 

 21. 

Human intestines are held in place by membranes called mesenteries. In bipedal humans, it would be logical for these mesenteries to be attached to the rib cage. Instead, they are attached to the backbone, as they are in quadrupedal mammals. Because of this arrangement, human mesenteries have a tendency to tear more often than mesenteries in other mammals, as frequently observed among truck drivers and jackhammer operators. The same evolutionary modification that causes increased susceptibility to torn mesenteries is responsible for
A)
tonsillitis.
B)
appendicitis.
C)
back and knee problems.
D)
susceptibility to HIV infection.
E)
vision problems associated with advanced age.
 

 22. 

Over evolutionary time, many cave-dwelling organisms have lost their eyes. Tapeworms have lost their digestive systems. Whales have lost their hind limbs. How can natural selection account for these losses?
A)
Natural selection cannot account for losses, only for innovations.
B)
It can account for these losses by the principle of use and disuse.
C)
Under particular circumstances that persisted for long periods, each of these structures presented greater costs than benefits.
D)
These organisms had the misfortune to experience harmful mutations, which caused the loss of these structures.
E)
B and D only
 

 23. 

Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth?
A)
All organisms require energy.
B)
All organisms use essentially the same genetic code.
C)
All organisms reproduce.
D)
All organisms show heritable variation.
E)
All organisms have undergone evolution.
 

 24. 

What would be the best technique for determining the evolutionary relationships among several closely related species, each of which still contains living members?
A)
examining the fossil record
B)
comparison of homologous structures
C)
comparative embryology
D)
comparative anatomy
E)
DNA or RNA analysis
 

 25. 

Members of two different species possess a similar-looking structure that they use in a similar fashion to perform the same function. Which information would shed the most light on whether these structures are homologous or whether they are, instead, the result of convergent evolution?
A)
The two species live at great distance from each other.
B)
The two species share many proteins in common, and the nucleotide sequences that code for these proteins are almost identical.
C)
The sizes of the structures in adult members of both species are similar in size.
D)
Both species are well adapted to their particular environments.
E)
Both species reproduce sexually.
 

 26. 

Ichthyosaurs were aquatic dinosaurs. Fossils show us that they had dorsal fins and tails just as fish do, even though their closest relatives were terrestrial reptiles that had neither dorsal fins nor aquatic tails. The dorsal fins and tails of ichthyosaurs and fish are
A)
homologous.
B)
examples of convergent evolution.
C)
adaptations to a common environment.
D)
A and C only
E)
B and C only
 

 27. 

Analysis of forelimb anatomy of humans, bats, and whales shows that humans and bats have fairly similar skeletal structures, while whales have diverged considerably in the shapes and proportions of their bones. However, analysis of several genes in these species suggests that all three diverged from a common ancestor at about the same time. Which of the following is the best explanation for these data?
A)
Humans and bats evolved by natural selection and whales evolved by Lamarckian mechanisms.
B)
Evolution of human and bat forelimbs was adaptive, but not for whales.
C)
Natural selection in an aquatic environment resulted in significant changes to whale forelimb anatomy.
D)
Genes mutate more rapidly in whales than in humans or bats.
E)
Whales are not properly defined as mammals.
 

 28. 

Darwin synthesized information from several sources in developing his theory of evolution by natural selection. Which of the following did not influence his thinking?
A)
Linnaeus' hierarchical classification of species
B)
Lyell's Principles of Geology
C)
observations of molecular homologies
D)
examples of major changes in domesticated species produced by artificial selection
E)
the distribution of species that he observed on the Galápagos Islands and during his journey around South America
 

 29. 

The smallest biological unit that can evolve over time is
A)
a cell.
B)
an individual organism.
C)
a population.
D)
a species.
E)
an ecosystem.
 

 30. 

Which of the following pairs of structures is least likely to represent homology?
A)
the wings of a bat and the forelimbs of a human
B)
the hemoglobin of a baboon and that of a gorilla
C)
the mitochondria of a plant and those of an animal
D)
the wings of a bird and those of an insect
E)
the brain of a cat and that of a dog
 



 
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